Breast tuberculosis in men is a rarely reported and poorly described condition. The aim of this systematic review of the available literature was to quantify its incidence and describe its clinical features and the procedures used to diagnose and treat it.
The average age of the men in the 26 cases analyzed was 56.5. In most of the cases (89%) the patients presented an isolated lump, associated in 27.8% of the cases with axillary lymphadenitis and in 33.3% with topical inflammation. The most commonly reported symptoms were pain (64.7%) and fever (35.3%).
Breast tuberculosis is not easy to diagnose in either men or women, and no specific treatment guidelines are currently available. Even though men are not at high risk for the condition, diagnosis often takes a very long time and involves inappropriate empirical treatments, thereby negatively impacting the health conditions of those affected by it as well as their ability to receive effective treatment.