The prevalence of diabetes continues to increase worldwide, and is rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries. In order to improve health care for those affected by the disease, it is important to take into account both the World Health Organization’s guidelines for its management and the education level and social determinants of health of the population in question. Indeed, these factors can have a strong bearing on the success or failure of the treatment of diseases, especially chronic ones such as diabetes, where optimal compliance with the treatment regimen is key to achieving good outcomes. The degree to which individuals have the capacity to understand basic health information and to make appropriate decisions vis-à-vis their own health is known as “health literacy”. In countries with limited resources the level of such literacy is very low, leading to even more difficult interactions between patients and health workers and thereby increasing the likelihood that treatment will be unsuccessful. It is therefore critical not only to meet the health needs of patients, but also to tackle their educational deficits in order to help them improve their comprehension of health information, thereby spurring them to comply with treatment regimens in a conscious, and thus consistent, manner.